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A pen and ink sketch of Wurzach-Ach, Wurzach Village

Reference: L/D/25/E4/3

Date: 1940 - 1945

An oil painting of Wurzach Schloss by C W Theobald, 586

Reference: L/D/25/E4/4

Date: 1940 - 1945

Channel Islands Occupation Society Tape 2 1) Summer of 1945-a Michael and Margaret Ginns production concerning the liberation of Jersey in the summer of 1945. Includes an introduction to the occupation of Jersey and the restrictions placed upon Channel Islanders by the Germans, the occurrence of D-Day but surrender not occurring in Jersey, the lack of supplies and fuel as a result of being cut off and the rescue of the islanders by the supplies of the SS Vega, news being gained from the crystal radio sets, listening to Churchill's speech in the Royal Square, the meeting of the German officers on the HMS Beagle and the signing of the surrender of the island, liberation forces coming onto the island and the celebrations that took place as a result, German prisoners of war being put to work to clear the devastation that had been left, parades of the British army, the thanksgiving service on the 17th May 1945 and the Royal visit on June 7th, removal and dumping of ammunition and islanders visit the previously off limits fortifications, the island returning to pre war state with the return of the mail boat and deportees and evacuees coming back to the island, finally clearing finishing in 1946 and celebrations to mark the one year anniversary of liberation-22 mins 30 secs. 2) Interned-a study of the deportations of Channel Islanders to internment camps in Southern Germany. Includes the reason islanders were deported, the serving of deportation orders, an exhibition marking the 40th anniversary of its occurrence with many paintings of interest being put on show, details of where the camps, Biberach, Laufen and Wurzach, were located, the make up of the camps, Harold Hepburn and other painters who took deportation as a chance to paint, single men being separated and taken to Laufen, different artists in the camps and examples of work done by Harold Hepburn, Henry Barnett, Sidney Dolby, Irene Grubb, and Joan Salmon, sport that took place in the camps, education, health in the camps, deaths and births of Channel Islanders in the camps, food and the assistance offered by the Red Cross, life continuing as normally as possible with celebrations of birthdays and anniversaries, liberation of the camps, freedom to move into the village and surrounding village and meet German people who had helped them, return to England and the Channel Islands, children adjusting to life without restrictions and the setting up of the Jersey Ex-Internee Association to promote greater understanding between people from Jersey and Wurzach-23 mins.

Reference: L/D/25/J2/2

Date: 1984

2 copies of 'Deported' a BBC Radio Jersey programme to mark the 50th anniversary of the deportation of Channel Islanders presented by Beth Lloyd. Figures of numbers deported from the Channel Islands. Michael Ginns, president of the CIOS interviewed giving reasons for deportations, quotes from local residents about their first impressions of the deportation process, hearing in the Evening Post, being served deportation notices, preparing in a short time, putting businesses in order, packing, transportation to the harbour, people being checked by the doctor, details of 3 seperate deportations and difficulties with them, people being turned back as a result of the ships being full, homes of those being evacuated been broken into, turn out of population to see the islanders off, problems among the crowd against the Germans, experiences on the journey to the internment camps by boat to St Malo and by train to Germany, arriving in Biberach, description and experiences of Biberach Internment Camp, journey to and description of bad state of Wurzach, lack of privacy, difficulties in hygiene, allocation of rooms and mixture of people, Red Cross parcels, lack of clothes and shoes, health in the camp, single men sent to Laufen, Roy Skingle and other internees speak of their experiences, party of Guernsey residents came to Laufen from Dorsten, food situation, roll calls, recreation, entertainments, games, work, education, Pat Abernethy talks of problems in Wurzach, weakness of leadership, inspection by Protecting Powers, escapes, variety shows, concerts, dances, repatriation of the sick to England and the Channel Islands, liberation of Wurzach on April 28th 1945 by the French, liberation of Laufen by the Americans on May 4th 1945, deaths of the Channel Islanders in the internment camps and a list of those taking part in the programme. Advertisement for the deportation exhibition at the Jersey Museum with the Mayor of Bad Wurzach interviewed on the history between Jersey and the town and calling for the twinning of St Helier and Bad Wurzach, Michael Ginns and Joan Coles remembering helpfulness of residents and need for links with the town, interviewees remembering their visits back to Laufen

Reference: L/D/25/L/9

Date: 13 September 1992

Talk given by Michael Ginns to the Channel Islands Occupation Society (Guernsey) on Life at Wurzach Internment Camp 1942-1945. Introducation by the Channel Islands Occupation Society (Guernsey) President. Talk includes story behind why people deported, notice in the Evening Post, sorting of affairs, transportation to St Helier Harbour, treatment by Germans, ships used, how not everbody could fit on the boat, demonstrations on Mount Bingham, the journey and arrival at St Malo, train journey from St Malo to Biberach, conditions at Biberach, the splitting of single men over 16 going to Laufen and married couples with children and without went to Wurzach, journey to Wurzach and the condition that they found the building in, allocation of rooms, parades, the care of the camp passing from the military to the German police, rationing, red cross parcels every week from Christmas 1942 until February 1945, comparison with conditions in Chanel Islands, entertainments in camp, walks, lack of escapes because of presence of women and cildren, bartering with local civilians, relationships with guards, doctors, the increase of air raids, jobs in the camps, visits from the Protecting Powers, rumours of repatriation, post, births, deaths and health in the camp, the keeping together of families, his repatriation to Britain in April and the journey involved, the continued life of people in the camps and liberation, education for school children and the conditions that he thought were relatively good for a teenager in comparison to other occurrences during the second world war. Questions about number of Guernsey people at Wurzach, conditions at Wurzach, medical people at Wurzach, women guards, education at Wurzach, morale of internees, returning to Wurzach. Explanations of items that he took to the talk and showed to the audience.

Reference: L/D/25/L/18

Date: 4 March 1977

A programme called 'Occupation Walks' on BBC Radio Jersey recording of the story of a man deported to Wurzach, Michael Ginns, and a 17 year old survivor of Belsen that he met, Irvine van Gelder. 1) Part 1: Back story of the second world war and occupation in Jersey culminating with the deportations in 1942 when Michael Ginns with other non Jersey born islanders were transported to Biberach for six weeks and then on to Wurzach. Michael Ginns talks of why the deportations took place and why he was deported, the conditions in Wurzach, receiving red cross parcels, life in and the set up at Wurzach and where it lay in Germany. Irvine van Gelder was an American Jew living in Holland who saw German anti-Semitic legislation first hand. He talks of the restrictions placed on their life, being told to be ready to be transported to a camp with an hours notice, being threatened with deportation a number of times but being saved by his father's nationality, being sent to Camp Westerburg in Holland, the terrible conditions in the camp, ending up in the camp at Bergen Belsen, being sent there on the train and put in barracks, where it is situated, being forced to work as slaves and being punished if not productive enough, the terrible conditions, being kept at starving point on tiny rations, ill treatment of prisoners resulting in death from starvation and disease and bodies being burned in a crematorium and the impressions the camp had on van Gelder. Michael Ginns talks about life being fairly easy in comparison in Wurzach, regular inspections by the Protecting Powers, it being hard for the elderly and those with young children, not realising what was occurring in the rest of Germany and the problem of boredom in the camp. In Belsen Irvine van Gelder remembers reaching the end of his strength and being put in hospital, he didn't want to live any more and was told that he had only another week to live. 2) Part 2: Recap of the previous weeks story. Events took another turn. Van Gelder tells how he heard there was a transport leaving Bergen Belsen with those Jews of english and american nationality and he and his family decided they had to leave despite his illness, taken to Wurzach on a passenger train, a lorry took them to the schloss at Wurzach where internees Mr Spencer and Mr Hickman put van Gelder in a bath, got him new clothes and put him in a bed with clean sheets. Michael Ginns watched the Jews arrive and appreciated how different their circumstances were, feelings of pity and sorrow, people gave food and clothing to them, once they had been deloused became integrated into camp life. Van Gelder remembers help from islanders which finally brought him back to health, he only weighed 69lbs when he arrived at 17 years old, he finds the difference between Wurzach and Belsen impossible to describe, remembers the red cross parcels, getting his strength back and later playing football and cutting wood, he still feels close to Jersey people, his best friend in Wurzach was a boy called Richard Tucker. Ginns remembers the delousing of the Jews' clothes. Van Gelder will never forget liberation, had followed the campaign on BBC radio, they were liberated by French troops who didn't know it was an internment camp. Michael Ginns missed out on liberation as he had been repatriated back to England through Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Van Gelder talks about seeing Schindler's List which captured the horror of concentration camp life, the only difference being the smell of the camp and the victims had too much meat on their bodies.

Reference: L/D/25/L/60

Date: 8 February 1999 - 15 February 1999

Channel Islands Occupation Society Tape 2 1) Summer of 1945-a Michael and Margaret Ginns production concerning the liberation of Jersey in the summer of 1945. Includes an introduction to the occupation of Jersey and the restrictions placed upon Channel Islanders by the Germans, the occurrence of D-Day but surrender not occurring in Jersey, the lack of supplies and fuel as a result of being cut off and the rescue of the islanders by the supplies of the SS Vega, news being gained from the crystal radio sets, listening to Churchill's speech in the Royal Square, the meeting of the German officers on the HMS Beagle and the signing of the surrender of the island, liberation forces coming onto the island and the celebrations that took place as a result, German prisoners of war being put to work to clear the devastation that had been left, parades of the British army, the thanksgiving service on the 17th May 1945 and the Royal visit on June 7th, removal and dumping of ammunition and islanders visit the previously off limits fortifications, the island returning to pre war state with the return of the mail boat and deportees and evacuees coming back to the island, finally clearing finishing in 1946 and celebrations to mark the one year anniversary of liberation-22 mins 30 secs. 2) Interned-a study of the deportations of Channel Islanders to internment camps in Southern Germany. Includes the reason islanders were deported, the serving of deportation orders, an exhibition marking the 40th anniversary of its occurrence with many paintings of interest being put on show, details of where the camps, Biberach, Laufen and Wurzach, were located, the make up of the camps, Harold Hepburn and other painters who took deportation as a chance to paint, single men being separated and taken to Laufen, different artists in the camps and examples of work done by Harold Hepburn, Henry Barnett, Sidney Dolby, Irene Grubb, and Joan Salmon, sport that took place in the camps, education, health in the camps, deaths and births of Channel Islanders in the camps, food and the assistance offered by the Red Cross, life continuing as normally as possible with celebrations of birthdays and anniversaries, liberation of the camps, freedom to move into the village and surrounding village and meet German people who had helped them, return to England and the Channel Islands, children adjusting to life without restrictions and the setting up of the Jersey Ex-Internee Association to promote greater understanding between people from Jersey and Wurzach-23 mins. [Master Copy-see L/D/25/J2/2]

Reference: Q/01/2

Date: 1984

1) Programme about the Liberation of the Channel Islands traced through the archives of the BBC. Winston Churchill's speech on Victory in Europe and the liberation of the island. Douglas Willis, a BBC correspondent, who sailed with the liberating forces into the harbour in HMS Beagle and HMS Bulldog-comments on the arrival into the harbour in Guernsey-arrived in the afternoon but a German officer, Captain Zimmerman arrived who didn't have the power to sign the surrender. Zimmerman was told to withdraw with a copy of the surrender in german and english-he told the British forces that if they kept the ship there that it would be considered a hostile action. HMS Beagle and Bulldog withdrew until they were called to a rendez-vous at midnight so that Major General Heine could sign the surrender. For the first time in 6 years HMS Bulldog is lit up. Heine came out in a ship but did not leave in order to board the HMS Bulldog-the commander of the HMS Bulldog started to get impatient-they turned on the searchlight-the boat arrived after 10 minutes. Commentates on Major General Heine getting on the ship and going to sign the surrender-recording of the surrender. At 6.30 on May 9th Douglas Willis sent another report from HMS Bulldog commentating on the surrender of the german commander in chief and his garrison-waiting for more than 5½ hours-moved towards Guernsey. Recording of British soldier demanding the signing of the surrender. Report at 7.15 on May 9th by Douglas Willis on the surrender of the German forces. Brigadier Snow transferred to HMS Beagle to go to Jersey to receive the surrender of the German garrison-anchored off St Helier Harbour at 10am-Wolf was ordered to the ship but failed to appear immediately. Alexander Coutanche, the bailiff, explains that he was called to meet the German commander in order to accompany him to the boat. When he arrived he found Wulf had his staff officers with him and when he saw that he demanded that his officers came as well-they waited for him. The bailiff sent messages to both the King and Winston Churchill-on May 12th the King issued a royal proclamation about the freeing of the Channel Islands [which is read out]. On the 1 o'clock news on the 16th May it was reported that Herbert Morrison had a great reception on a visit to St Helier-the next day the shops were due to be filled with goods. In Guernsey Herbert Morrison talks about his visit to the Channel Islands. On the 5th June the bailiff spoke on radio-talks about the Jersey residents in the armed forces, his thanks towards the government in the UK, the force under Brigadier Snow and the Channel Islanders who were deported during the second world war and his wish to hurry their return to the island although warns that the islands may have changed from when they left them and he talks about the changes and difficulties that the island experienced during the occupation-the shortages, rationing, worsening conditions and the Red Cross. On the 7th June the royal visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth took place. BBC Correspondent Howard Marshall reporting about the King and Queen arriving at the States building and meeting the bailiff, the crowds in the Royal Square to see the royal visit, playing of the national anthem, going in and coming out of the States Building with a fanfare and the car being driven away. On christmas day 1945 Harold Le Druillenec, the only British survivor of Belsen, was chosen to introduce the King's message to the Commonwealth-talks about his experience in the concentration camp, the death of his sister and his survival, his life during the occupation in the Channel Islands and the freedom they now experience. 2) Tom Salmon interviewing Sir Alexander Coutanche. Talks about the office of bailiff and its 3 main functions-presiding in the court, presiding in the States and administrative work. Started as a member of the Bar during the first world war, came back to practice in Jersey in 1920 and soon after that he was elected as a deputy in St Helier. After 3 years he was appointed as the solicitor-general and then attorney-general and then bailiff. He is been a member of the States for 38 years in different capacities. Became the bailiff in 1935. When he became solicitor-general in 1925 he knew there needed to be a reorganisation of the public services-by 1935 the reorganisation had taken place. Saw the possibility of Jersey as a tourist destination-was interested in the building of the Airport and updating of the harbours. The increase in tourism meant a reorganisation in society in order to deal with visitors and hotel workers. Was responsible for the establishment of the first housing scheme. The arrival of the second world war-no one believed that there was going to be an occupation. The island was prepared to receive soldiers from St Malo as a defensive position-the Germans didn't go directly to St Malo and so the soldiers could get back to Britain safely. As a result the British troops were removed and the islands were left undefended-the Jersey people felt horror at this news. When the evacuation was completed he was ordered to take on the responsibilities of both bailiff and governor-a war time government was established to speed up the process. When the British troops left they offered to blow up the public utilities but he pointed out they'd be needed for the residents and so they decided to leave them as they were. On the day the German soldiers landed he was in his house in the morning and he received notice that papers had been dropped ordering the surrender of the island. He had told residents that when he could not guarantee their safety he would lower the flag from Fort Regent and that day he went to Fort Regent and lowered the flag. When at Fort Regent received a message saying the Germans had landed at the Jersey Airport-he went out there and the German officers explained that Jersey was occupied. The German officers were young airborne troops-later he came to the house and read proclamations. They enquired about supplies and when he told them of the stocks of food they didn't think rationing would be necessary as they were on their way to England. After the Battle of Britain he met the officer again who said he felt sorry for them as a paper war was about to begin-a large administration was then brought in. Jersey was lucky because the heads of the administration were gentlemen-he could deal with them. He was always convinced that Britain would win-never thought they'd be here for ever. As a representative of his people-he had to deal with the Germans-he had no means of letting the people know what and why he was doing things-could gain great advantages but people wouldn't know about it. Felt no moral qualms about the things they did because the one thing they wanted to do was make sure the people of the island survived. Felt lonely-his wife often felt worse. There was nothing anyone could do in terms of sabotage-punishments would follow like wirelesses were taken away. When they were taken away he didn't have a secret set but was kept up to date with news. The worst time was in 1942 when the deportations took place-wanted to resign but was persuaded to stay. The conditions after D-Day were terrible-had no gas, electricity, coal or bread or a lot of other things. Had soup rations given out. If you lived in the country you were better off than the town people. He was able to have a fire because of the trees in his garden and had candles so he was fortunate. Everybody lost weight-his wife lost a great deal. The Germans near the end changed the people in the high command-the head was an admiral who he never got on with. He was determined never to surrender-he only surrendered when he was ordered to do so-had to climb down. Addressed the people in the Royal Square-played Winston Churchill's speech over loudspeakers in the Square and celebrations took place but they were not liberated until the next day on his birthday, 9th May 1945. During the war he protested-that was all he could do. After the liberation the problems were getting people back to the island. The constitutional set up of the island were examined-were asked how to reform the States and Royal Court and most of these were approved. The great task was to put in place the political reforms-15 years later they were not quite put in place. Housing was a great problem at that time-people coming back. Proud of the changes since the war. End of Side One. 3) Deportee Bob Samson being interviewed about a society that was formed after a visit to Germany in 1971 with the aim to foster better relationships between Jersey and the German people. Was an internee for 3 years. He was born in Birmingham-he was the only one in his family born outside of the island. He wasn't badly treated. About 2000 people were sent out of the island in six weeks. Was given notice of a day that he was to be deported-he received it a week before he was 18. He was not worried about being sent to Germany but his mother and father were worried. They couldn't stop him being sent away. He looked after himself on the boat-he knew people on the boat from St Ouen. Deportee Maurice Hill being interviewed about being arrested in September 1942 after protesting against the deportation of English born people to Germany. Was one of 13 arrested outside of the Barra Hotel. Was sentenced in a German court for 4 months-it was reduced to a month and he was released after 3 weeks but in February 1943 he was sent to Laufen. He was sent to the local prison in Jersey and Laufen was an old castle. The guards were regular soldiers but they did have an SS search once for a radio. The head of Laufen offered to take it and return it after the SS search which they did. They were supposed to get the German front line soldier but they didn't have much. A couple of people attempted to escape including an ex island footballer Cyril Dale who left with a Guernsey boy, Bill Russell-got as far as Vienna before getting caught. Bill Russell escaped when in Yugoslavia and joined the partisans. Laufen was an all male camp, families went to Biberach originally and then most of them went to Wurzach. They had a football pitch for entertainment on a small island-if they misbehaved it would be closed. There was a concert hall, table tennis table. All the equipment came through the Red Cross-received red cross parcels. They were released on May 4th-were listening to the news and saw American troops and ran out-they didn't know their was an internment camp in the village. Got back to Jersey in September but some got back before that and some after. 4) Personal view of Michael Ginns, a founder of the Channel Islands Occupation Society (Jersey Branch), interviewed by Beth Lloyd. The CIOS was originally founded in Guernsey in 1966 and the Jersey branch was formed in 1971 for the purpose of reporting and collating all aspects of the occupation. Believes some bunkers should be preserved for posterity-one day the bunkers will be looked upon in the same way as the martello towers. The bunkers and constructions were mostly built to fortress standards-will last a long time. The Germans left the bunkers in working order-straight after the occupation people went to the bunkers and took souvenirs-when the British troops arrived they took out the hardware which was dumped in the sea. Each type of the smaller weapons were given to the States of Jersey but everything else was dumped into the sea. As the years went by the bunkers were used as rubbish tips and so in the early 1960s all bunkers on public land were sealed to the public. Some are now open because in 1976 he thought it would be a good idea to open the Noirmont Bunker to the public-wrote to the Public Works Committee and they told him that in the winter they would go and look at it to see its prospects. The committee was later taken over by Senator John Averty-he was keen to open it and allowed the CIOS to look after it. Since then they have given the responsibility for the associated observation tower nearby, the bunker at Corbière, La Carrière, St Brelade and the Gun Emplacement and Underground Bunkers at Les Landes, St Ouen. Have 170 local member in the CIOS of which a dozen are very active. Noirmont is open twice a month for visitors. First Record-A german march. He was 11 years old when the second world war started. He had just started at Victoria College in 1939. Life continued as normal at first but had to carry his gas mask. He enjoyed it as a boy-liked seeing aeroplanes fly overhead. Knew the Germans were coming-after the evacuation there was a calm. His father though of evacuating but never managed to leave. The Germans moved into Victoria College House. Carried on at school-it began at 10 o'clock. In 1941 Victoria College moved to Halkett Place as it was taken over by the Germans as a barracks. In 1941 a German schools inspector visited Victoria College. The first he knew of deportation was when he was visiting town with his mother and she was told by a friend that the deportations were to take place. They were fortunate because it was a Tuesday but they didn't leave until Friday-some had to leave within 24 hours. Had to send animals to the Animal Shelter to be put down. Had to report at Grouville Station where a bus was laid on to take them to St Helier. Had to report to the JMT Garage on the Esplanade-they were on the last bus and couldn't get on the ship. Went home-some went home to empty houses which had been looted by neighbours. When they came back 21 days later people held back and weren't deported-there was a minor deportation in February 1943. Second Record-Vera Lynn with 'The White Cliffs of Dover'. The journey from France to Germany has to be looked at in terms of the time. They were the only prisoners at the time being transported in second class railway carriages as opposed to good carriages. They got in to the train at St Malo-were warned to bring enough food for two days and were given some food by the German soldiers. Arrived at Biberach-they then walked up to the camp-it was a prisoner of war camp. Quickly organised themselves in the camp-Captain Hilton was appointed camp senior. Education was laid on for everyone in the first 6 weeks but during this time they were being sorted out. Single men over 16 went to Laufen, married couples with children went to Wurzach and single couples stayed in Biberach and were joined the Guernsey deportees who were following. The rations from the Germans left you hungry but not starving but without the red cross parcels they would have been in trouble. He preferred Wurzach where he moved to-everything was under one roof. Life for a teenage boy-there were football matches, stage shows. It was difficult for a parent with a young family and older people. His mother was matron of the camp hospital-she was asked by Dr Oliver who went with them. Mrs Hutton was the first matron of the hospital but she died in 1943 and his mother took over. His father was ill and spent time in hospital-he was repatriated in September 1943 because of ill health. He was the only child-was in a room with 20 other men and boys there own age-used to collect bread and milk from the village. Had visits from the Red Cross and they decided they needed more room to exercise. There were organised walks outside of the camp twice a week-the guard would sometimes stop at the pub and they had some money from the government. They were repatriated in March 1945 to join up with his father-Germany was falling apart at this time but they were taken on a Red Cross train through Germany, Denmark into Gothenburg, Sweden. Crossed from Gothenburg to Liverpool. They returned to Jersey on July 28th 1945. Everything was intact in their home. Third Record-The Watermill. Felt pleased to be home but was annoyed that he missed the liberation of the camp and Jersey. He and his friends went to Mr Robinson's private school in Balmoral Terrace and he took the school certificate. He joined the army and went to Bodmin-got as far as Nottingham but didn't go abroad-was a vehicle mechanic who worked on tanks-stayed for 6 years. Fourth Record-The theme from the television series We'll Meet Again. When he left the army he started to work in the post office in Nottinghamshire-worked there from Christmas 1952 until May 1953 when he came back to Jersey and became a postman and has been so ever since. Can have problems with dogs but generally are not too bad. Knows about jersey buses-is fascinated by the transport systems of Jersey-wrote a book about the buses in Jersey. Is involved with the Jersey Camera Club and with David Bishop and his wife they produce tape slide sequences. They visited the Royal Air Force base in Cranwell after the RAF visited Jersey and saw his slide show sequences about the occupation and invited them to show them at the base-enjoyed the trip. Fifth Record-Royal Air Force March Past played the Central Band of the Royal Air Force. Enjoys writing books about the occupation. Archives are still being discovered. Most of his work is taken up by running the CIOS. His wife shares his interest in the occupation. Wants to write a definitive work on the defences of the Channel Islands.

Reference: R/07/B/14

Sunday afternoon, August 1943, Wurzach, Germany

Reference: SJA/0000/02414

Object name: Drawing

Artist: Faulder, Nellie May

Date: August 1943