Norman Le Brocq, founder member of the Jersey Communist Party and former Deputy of the States of Jersey, talks to the Channel Islands Occupation Society about his occupation experiences. Introduction by the CIOS President. Talks about his personal situation at the start of the occupation, his decision not to be evacuated, his political ideas, becoming a methodist lay preacher, meeting Leslie Huelin, a member of the Australian Communist Party, in 1941, forming a discussion group that later became the Jersey Democratic Movement to talk about ideas for Jersey after the war, the formation and growth of the Jersey Communist Party, the recruitment of Warren Hobbs, names of young people that they had recruited, making sketches of German military installations, organising aid for escaped Ukrainian forced labourers, Mikhail Krohin, an escapee taught english by Mrs Metcalfe who acted as a distribution messenger, the acquirement of a printing duplicator to create illegal leaflets for the Jersey Democratic Movement, copying BBC news bulletins for camps, help they received, methods of obtaining supplies and identity cards, Dr McKinstry who helped them, the setting up of an OT Hospital being at Girl's College, contact between Ernest Perrée, a porter at the hospital and the Spanish workers who were mostly communists, the meeting between three spanish workers and three from the Jersey Communist Party, the passing of leaflets in the camps by the Spanish, the duplicator being hidden in a cottage in Sand Street, his wrongful sacking from the Jersey Gas Company for leaking information, working for the libraries and the George Hutt's bookshop and lending library in Broad Street, Feodor Burrij and Louisa Gould, a meeting with Paul Mullbach, a german soldier part of a group [part of or inspired by the Free Germany Movement] attempting to start a mutiny in the garrison, agreement to produce leaflets for him, being nominated as liaison with Mulbach and meeting in Burger's Bookshop in the Parade to hand over the leaflet to print, being helped by Rosalie Le Riche, Mr Le Brocq's soon to be wife, Mulbach's desertion and the cottage bought for him to live in, Mulbach's attempt to blow up the camp and plans for the mutiny being curtailed as the result of liberation. Questions asked about what happened to Paul Mulbach, the people involved in resistance movements that existed and Mr Holmes, a shopkeeper who was alleged to be a spy for both the Nazis and the Allies, Polish soldiers in the German army, the camp at the bottom of Jubilee Hill, known as Lager Immelman, the return of the forced worker, Mariam Polski (?) to the island after the occupation, Russian bishops, visit to Ukraine, the experiences of the German prisoners of war and forced labourers after the occupation, whether he's thinking of writing his memoirs, whether he was ever picked up by the Germans, he talks about a member of the feldgendarmerie, Billy Mace, who warned Louisa Gould a search was coming but she was unable to get everything out, the experience of Harold Le Druillenec and the efficiency of the Nazis. [Same recording as items R/03/C/7 and R/03/C/8]

Reference: L/D/25/L/36

Date: April 13th 1988 - April 13th 1988

Recording from the BBC 1 South West TV broadcast entitled 'The Lonely War' with Bruce Parker, a former Guernsey resident, looking back at the occupation of the Channel Islands with people who experienced it. 1) Part 1: Battleships of Iron and Steel. Introduction to the islands, the reason that they were invaded and the realisation that they were defenceless. Subjects discussed include the decision to demilitarise the islands, the dilemma whether to be evacuated or not, the fact that the boat to Sark did not arrive, the evacuation of Alderney and Daphne Pope's decision to stay, the air raid on the harbours and the arrival of the Germans, newspapers printing german orders, the first impression of german soldiers, the situation in Sark as recounted by Dame Sybil Hathaway, restrictions being introduced, Raymond Falla, the President of the Agriculture Department and a member of the Controlling Committee telling of the job of the government in Guernsey, the experience of Frank Falla, a journalist on the Guernsey Star newspaper, resistance in the islands, the relationship with the german soldiers, Jerry Bags, the sending of Hubert Nicolle to Guernsey on an intelligence gathering raid and later raids, the execution of Francois Scornet, escapes from the islands, trying to get supplies, entertainments the confiscation of radios and the secret listening to the BBC and disseminating information, the sinking of HMS Charybdis and HMS Limbourne prompting thousands to go to the funerals, the deportations and the internment camps, the terrible conditions of workers brought in by the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the D-Day and the expected liberation which took a year to actually occur. 2) Part 2: Our Dear Channel Islands. From 1944 the increase of hardship as a result of being cut off from mainland Europe as well as Britain. Subjects discussed include Alderney and the exoeriences of Gordon Prigent, a Jerseyman who had been sent to work on the island and Daphne Pope, who stayed on the island, their relationships with the Germans, the conditions in the Organisation Todt camps in Alderney, the death of Daphne Pope's 2 year old son, Gordon Prigent being caught listening to the BBC, being put in the concentration camp and having to cope with the conditions, a report on HMS Rodney's attack on Alderney, Pope making friends with German soldiers and the question of collaboration, the difficulty of rationing and having to improvise for food and fuel, worsening health of old people as witnessed by Pearl Regan, the running out of medication and the onset of famine and disease, red cross messages, red cross parcels arriving with the SS Vega, Harold Le Druillenec's memories of deportation and liberation at Belsen camp, the celebration of liberation on the islands, an extract of Churchill's speech, a contemporary report by the BBC on the surrender of the German forces, Rex Ferbrache, a Guernseyman, being welcomed home, the disarming of German troops and being shipped out as POWs, investigations into the events in Alderney during the occupation and punishment, collaboration, the royal visit, rehabilitation and the effect occupation had on islanders.

Reference: L/D/25/L/40

Date: June 27th 1980 - July 4th 1980

Original audio cassette recording - see file description.

Reference: L/D/25/L/40/1

Date: June 27th 1980 - July 4th 1980

Occupation-BBC Radio Jersey tape. The story of the occupation of Jersey during World War 2 told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. 1) Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. 2) Part 14: Entertainment. Eye witnesses talking about the difficulties of the first show during the occupation put on by the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club, cinemas and the films that were shown, variety entertainment at the Opera House, West's Cinema and out in the parishes, finding musicians, public dances, the Amateur Variety Band, the Green Room Club productions including pantomimes, easter productions and shows, improvisations with costumes and scenery and censorship of the shows. 3) Part 15: We Are At War. Eye witness accounts of feelings of isolation, seeing and hearing British and German aeroplanes, feeling and seeing bombing raids on the coast of France, leaflet raids, members of the royal air force being taken as prisoners of war, commando raid on Egypt, sabotage, the v sign campaign, resistance and reprisals, youth groups against the Germans, the British Patriots group and Norman Le Brocq and Leslie Huelin working with the Free Germany Movement represented by Paul Muelbach calling for a mutiny in the garrison. 4) Occupation Part 16: Escapes produced by Beth Lloyd made up of interviews of local people who were in Jersey during the Occupation. Subjects discussed include the escape of Denis Vibert to England in September 1941, tales of different escapes to France by islanders recounted by Eddie Le Corre, Basil Le Brun, Peter Crill, John Floyd, Roy Mourant and their subsequent experiences of interrogations by the Home Forces and arrival in England. 5) Part 17: D-Day and the Last Terrible Year. Eye witnesses talking about the realisation that D-Day was taking place, aeroplanes going over the island, lack of fuel and food supplies, health in island worsening, Red Cross parcels, the arrival and unloading of the SS Vega, starvation of German soldiers and waiting for liberation. 6) Part 18: Liberation. Eye witnesses including the bailiff talking about the change in the high command of the german administration and listening to Winston Churchill's speech, release of political prisoners, celebrations, surrender of Germans and arrival of royal navy officers. See R/06/4.

Reference: L/D/25/L/44

Occupation-BBC Radio Jersey tape. The story of the occupation of Jersey during World War 2 told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. 1) Part 15: We Are At War. Eye witness accounts of feelings of isolation, seeing and hearing British and German aeroplanes, feeling and seeing bombing raids on the coast of France, leaflet raids, members of the royal air force being taken as prisoners of war, commando raid on Egypt, sabotage, the v sign campaign, resistance and reprisals, youth groups against the Germans, the British Patriots group and Norman Le Brocq and Leslie Huelin working with the Free Germany Movement represented by Paul Muelbach calling for a mutiny in the garrison. 2) Part 10: There's Good and Bad in all Races. Eye witnesses talking about collaborators, Jerry Bags, informers, the actions of the Post Office to destroy anonymous denunciation letters or warn those who had been denounced, searches by german soldiers to follow up anonymous letters, relationships with and attitudes of the german soldiers. 3) Part 11: Government and God, How the States and the Church Survived. Eye witnesses talking about dissatisfaction with the local authorities, the difficulties faced by the bailiff Alexander Coutanche, confirming legislation in Jersey, rectors and Jurats members of the States, meetings of the States, rectors remaining in the parishes and services continuing, Canon Cohu being taken by the Germans for passing on the news from the radio, praying for the men who were fighting, banning of the Salvation Army and Jehovah Witnesses. 4) Part 12: Brushes with the German Authorities. Eye witnesses talking about being interrogated at Silvertide, experiences of confrontations with the german soldiers, being arrested and beaten, court martials and trials of local residents, listening to the radio and experiences in the prison at Gloucester Street. 5) Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. 6) Part 14: Entertainment. Eye witnesses talking about the difficulties of the first show during the occupation put on by the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club, cinemas and the films that were shown, variety entertainment at the Opera House, West's Cinema and out in the parishes, finding musicians, public dances, the Amateur Variety Band, the Green Room Club productions including pantomimes, easter productions and shows, improvisations with costumes and scenery and censorship of the shows.

Reference: L/D/25/L/47

Talk by Dr Raymond Osmont of his experiences as a doctor at the General Hospital during the occupation to the Channel Islands Occupation Society. Talk includes references to his return to island before being qualified and Dr McKinstry arranging for him to work at the hospital to gain experience, Dr Darling who he lived with and taught him about clinical medicine, learning about procedures and surgical instruments, the effect of the occupation on the hospital with many nurses evacuating and the matron Miss Miller and later Miss Carter heading the team, a recruitment campaign to bring new nursing staff in, some of the medical staff of the hospital including Dr Arthur Halliwell, Dr John Hanna, Mr Arnold Ferguson, Dr Warrington, Dr Blampied, Dr Wood and the dentist Mr Joe Price, the GPs of the island, the reorganisation of the wards after being taken over by the Germans, the maternity wing transferring to the Dispensary with Dr John Lewis being put in charge, the geriatric ward on the top floor under the leadership of Sister Renoir, the increase in the death rates on the island due to lack of drugs, food and heating, increase in tuberculosis, the treatment of Miss Ivy Forster the sister of Louisa Gould and Harold Le Druillenec, Elise Floyd helping prisoners' families meet with them in the physiotherapy department, the casualty and outpatient departments under Dr Darling, a fracture clinic run by Dr Halliwell on a saturday morning, the pathology lab under Dr McKinstry who looked after public health and Overdale Hospital, the increase in epidemics during the occupation, the number of cases of diptheria, whooping cough and other diseases, vaccinations, foreign workers bringing in diseases, a house in Grands Vaux being used as a tuberculosis sanotorium, the death of Arnold Ferguson, the isolation wards in the hospital who dealt with the psychiatric patients, a German air force doctor who used to smuggle small quantities of drugs from Germany for Dr McKinstry, the height and weight of children at this time, the improvement in children's teeth, the crisis year of 1944 where supplies of insulin, anaesthetics and fuel were getting low, supplies being brought in from France but a great deal being stolen on the way to the island, all supplies ceasing from D-Day to the arrival of the SS Vega leading to the death of 14 diabetics, the running out of anaesthetics, tar being used as a fuel in place of coal, the problem of running out of x ray films,a lack of variety of drugs and the drugs used, a show put on by the hospital staff to keep morale up, the senior pharmacist Snowdon Amy, the different medicines used for different diseases, the arrival of penicillin on the SS Vega and the treatment of the prostitutes used by the german soldiers for venereal diseases.

Reference: L/D/25/L/49

Date: March 11th 1987 - March 11th 1987

Forster Family Papers and Rotary Club of Jersey Collection

Reference: L/F/300

Date: 1944 - 1949

Occupation Papers

Reference: L/F/300/A

Date: 1944 - 1944

Letters regarding the refusal of the Platzkommandant of an appeal by Major Le Masurier, President of the Department of Essential Commodities, for the postponement of the sentences of H O Le Druillenec [Harold Osmond Le Druillenec], L M Gould [Louisa Mary Gould, née Le Druillenec] and B Petolet.

Reference: L/F/300/A/3

Date: June 26th 1944 - June 30th 1944

Magazine titled The 40th anniversary of the Liberation of Jersey: An historic souvenir of the Liberation of Jersey and programme of celebrations, May 6 - May 12, 1985. Edited by Rob Shipley.

Reference: L/F/341/C/2

Date: May 6th 1985 - May 12th 1985

[Copies from the National Archive - not to be reproduced] Various documents from the National Archive file KV 4/87, produced by the British Security Service MI 5. The file contains correspondence and reports related to the investigations by Section I(b) of the Security Service, attached to the liberating Force 135, on the subject of the conduct of the islanders, island authorities and Germans during the German Occupation. Colonel J R Stopford headed the MI 5 investigation which took place immediately after the Liberation. Captain Dening, his subordinate, conducted the investgations. The file also includes the following reports produced by MI 5 or other British government agencies: 27th December 1943 'Raid on Jersey: Report on Intelligence gained’ 21st January 1944 ‘Raid on Sark: Report on Intelligence gained’ September 1944 ‘Channel Islands: Report on German Morale and factors likely to hasten or postpone capitulation’ 4th December 1944 'Postal and Telegraphic Censorship: Report on the Channel Islands No. 3 (Jersey)’ 17t August 1945 Report by Captain Dening of MI 5, ‘The Channel Islands Under German Occupation’. This report is very critical of the Bailiffs of Guernsey and Jersey, and of the Dame of Sark. It also states that about 180 cases of collaboration had been identified, broadly falling into the areas of: Profiteers; Informers; Women consorting with Germans; people of high social standing who were over-friendly with the Germans. However, only 11 cases were thought to be worth prosecuting. 8th August 1945 Report by Colonel Stopford, ‘The I(b) Reports on the Channel Islands’. This report covers civilian morale, relations with the Germans, German propaganda, collaboration, resistance, local administration, Organisation Todt and Russian slave workers, concentration camps, and the German police. 30th June 1945 Report by J.R Stopford, ‘The Administration of the Channel Islands under the German Occupation’. This report lists criticisms, and occasionally praise, of some members of the island administration, including Alexander Coutanche, Duret Aubin, and Dr. Noel McKinstry. There are similar reports on the islands of Guernsey and Sark. Two undated reports (1945) by MI 5 on Alderney, including details of the Organisation Todt, the camps Helgoland, Nordeney, Borkum and Syllt. Also details of the British civilians on the island, and of some of the Russian, Polish, French, Spanish and North African workers. There are also details of allegations against named collaborators: Reverend F.G. Waterbury, Rector of Castel, Guernsey, a Nazi sympathiser; Margaret Young Mallet, Emilia Pallot and Theresia Mathurin, of Guernsey, who volunteered to work in Germany; John Frederick Dyball, of Greve D’Azette, Jersey, who informed on islanders with wireless sets leading to jail sentences, and whose sister was a mistress of Wolfle of the German Secret Field Police (GFP); J. E. Cort of Guernsey, a Nazi sympathiser; Norah M Pickthall, of Sark, a Nazi sympathiser; John Hughes, of Summerland, Jersey, suspected of informing on Clarence Claude Painter and Peter Edward Painter,who were deported and died in camps; Mr Cheeseborough, of Guernsey, who worked for the OT; Maud and Lily Vibert, who are believed to have informed to the German Secret Field police on Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Ivy Forster – in this report Lohse of the German Secret Field Police identified a note written by one of the sisters as being in the same handwriting as the note which was sent to the GFP informing on Louisa Gould. [National Archive - reference KV 4/78]

Reference: L/F/437/A7/1

Date: December 8th 1943 - October 1st 1945

School report of F Harris of New Street Boys School. Signed by H Le Druillenec at class teacher

Reference: L/F/87/A/2

Date: September 5th 1938 - September 5th 1938

Part two of item R/03/C/7, a sound recording of a speech in which Norman Le Brocq, founder member of the Jersey Communist Party and former Deputy of the States of Jersey, talks about his occupation experiences. Continuation of audience questions following the speech, including: a polish slave worker called Mariam/Maryam Polski? who Norman le Brocq was acquainted with; still in touch with some former slave workers, including Feodor Burryi and Mikhail Krohin; repatriation of slave workers after the liberation; was never arrested by the Germans - most people arrested were caught due to carelessness; gives the case of Louisa Gould as an example of this - she was informed on for hiding Feodor Burryi; Billy Mace, a member of the Feldgendarmerie used to warn people in advance if they were due to be searched - he warned Louisa Gould that her house would be searched, and Feodor Burryi was moved, but she had kept some papers on which he had practiced english as a keepsake - this was enough evidence to convict her for hiding an escaped prisoner; her brother, Harold Le Druillenec is also mentioned; according to Norman Le Brocq, the Nazis were not very efficient - caught more people through informers than detective work; once someone was convicted of an offence it was often accidental where they ended up; also mentioned is Alison Griffiths, a student who did many interviews with Norman le Brocq on his occupation experiences for her thesis, and the possibility of this being published. Recorded on 30/09/1990. Good sound quality. [Same recording as item L/D/25/L/36]

Reference: R/03/C/8

Date: September 30th 1990 - September 30th 1990

Occupation-BBC Radio Jersey tape. The story of the occupation of Jersey during World War 2 told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. 1) Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. 2) Part 14: Entertainment. Eye witnesses talking about the difficulties of the first show during the occupation put on by the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club, cinemas and the films that were shown, variety entertainment at the Opera House, West's Cinema and out in the parishes, finding musicians, public dances, the Amateur Variety Band, the Green Room Club productions including pantomimes, easter productions and shows, improvisations with costumes and scenery and censorship of the shows. 3) Part 15: We Are At War. Eye witness accounts of feelings of isolation, seeing and hearing British and German aeroplanes, feeling and seeing bombing raids on the coast of France, leaflet raids, members of the royal air force being taken as prisoners of war, commando raid on Egypt, sabotage, the v sign campaign, resistance and reprisals, youth groups against the Germans, the British Patriots group and Norman Le Brocq and Leslie Huelin working with the Free Germany Movement represented by Paul Muelbach calling for a mutiny in the garrison. 4) Occupation Part 16: Escapes produced by Beth Lloyd made up of interviews of local people who were in Jersey during the Occupation. Subjects discussed include the escape of Denis Vibert to England in September 1941, tales of different escapes to France by islanders recounted by Eddie Le Corre, Basil Le Brun, Peter Crill, John Floyd, Roy Mourant and their subsequent experiences of interrogations by the Home Forces and arrival in England. 5) Part 17: D-Day and the Last Terrible Year. Eye witnesses talking about the realisation that D-Day was taking place, aeroplanes going over the island, lack of fuel and food supplies, health in island worsening, Red Cross parcels, the arrival and unloading of the SS Vega, starvation of German soldiers and waiting for liberation. 6) Part 18: Liberation. Eye witnesses including the bailiff talking about the change in the high command of the german administration and listening to Winston Churchill's speech, release of political prisoners, celebrations, surrender of Germans and arrival of royal navy officers.

Reference: R/06/4

1) Programme about the Liberation of the Channel Islands traced through the archives of the BBC. Winston Churchill's speech on Victory in Europe and the liberation of the island. Douglas Willis, a BBC correspondent, who sailed with the liberating forces into the harbour in HMS Beagle and HMS Bulldog-comments on the arrival into the harbour in Guernsey-arrived in the afternoon but a German officer, Captain Zimmerman arrived who didn't have the power to sign the surrender. Zimmerman was told to withdraw with a copy of the surrender in german and english-he told the British forces that if they kept the ship there that it would be considered a hostile action. HMS Beagle and Bulldog withdrew until they were called to a rendez-vous at midnight so that Major General Heine could sign the surrender. For the first time in 6 years HMS Bulldog is lit up. Heine came out in a ship but did not leave in order to board the HMS Bulldog-the commander of the HMS Bulldog started to get impatient-they turned on the searchlight-the boat arrived after 10 minutes. Commentates on Major General Heine getting on the ship and going to sign the surrender-recording of the surrender. At 6.30 on May 9th Douglas Willis sent another report from HMS Bulldog commentating on the surrender of the german commander in chief and his garrison-waiting for more than 5½ hours-moved towards Guernsey. Recording of British soldier demanding the signing of the surrender. Report at 7.15 on May 9th by Douglas Willis on the surrender of the German forces. Brigadier Snow transferred to HMS Beagle to go to Jersey to receive the surrender of the German garrison-anchored off St Helier Harbour at 10am-Wolf was ordered to the ship but failed to appear immediately. Alexander Coutanche, the bailiff, explains that he was called to meet the German commander in order to accompany him to the boat. When he arrived he found Wulf had his staff officers with him and when he saw that he demanded that his officers came as well-they waited for him. The bailiff sent messages to both the King and Winston Churchill-on May 12th the King issued a royal proclamation about the freeing of the Channel Islands [which is read out]. On the 1 o'clock news on the 16th May it was reported that Herbert Morrison had a great reception on a visit to St Helier-the next day the shops were due to be filled with goods. In Guernsey Herbert Morrison talks about his visit to the Channel Islands. On the 5th June the bailiff spoke on radio-talks about the Jersey residents in the armed forces, his thanks towards the government in the UK, the force under Brigadier Snow and the Channel Islanders who were deported during the second world war and his wish to hurry their return to the island although warns that the islands may have changed from when they left them and he talks about the changes and difficulties that the island experienced during the occupation-the shortages, rationing, worsening conditions and the Red Cross. On the 7th June the royal visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth took place. BBC Correspondent Howard Marshall reporting about the King and Queen arriving at the States building and meeting the bailiff, the crowds in the Royal Square to see the royal visit, playing of the national anthem, going in and coming out of the States Building with a fanfare and the car being driven away. On christmas day 1945 Harold Le Druillenec, the only British survivor of Belsen, was chosen to introduce the King's message to the Commonwealth-talks about his experience in the concentration camp, the death of his sister and his survival, his life during the occupation in the Channel Islands and the freedom they now experience. 2) Tom Salmon interviewing Sir Alexander Coutanche. Talks about the office of bailiff and its 3 main functions-presiding in the court, presiding in the States and administrative work. Started as a member of the Bar during the first world war, came back to practice in Jersey in 1920 and soon after that he was elected as a deputy in St Helier. After 3 years he was appointed as the solicitor-general and then attorney-general and then bailiff. He is been a member of the States for 38 years in different capacities. Became the bailiff in 1935. When he became solicitor-general in 1925 he knew there needed to be a reorganisation of the public services-by 1935 the reorganisation had taken place. Saw the possibility of Jersey as a tourist destination-was interested in the building of the Airport and updating of the harbours. The increase in tourism meant a reorganisation in society in order to deal with visitors and hotel workers. Was responsible for the establishment of the first housing scheme. The arrival of the second world war-no one believed that there was going to be an occupation. The island was prepared to receive soldiers from St Malo as a defensive position-the Germans didn't go directly to St Malo and so the soldiers could get back to Britain safely. As a result the British troops were removed and the islands were left undefended-the Jersey people felt horror at this news. When the evacuation was completed he was ordered to take on the responsibilities of both bailiff and governor-a war time government was established to speed up the process. When the British troops left they offered to blow up the public utilities but he pointed out they'd be needed for the residents and so they decided to leave them as they were. On the day the German soldiers landed he was in his house in the morning and he received notice that papers had been dropped ordering the surrender of the island. He had told residents that when he could not guarantee their safety he would lower the flag from Fort Regent and that day he went to Fort Regent and lowered the flag. When at Fort Regent received a message saying the Germans had landed at the Jersey Airport-he went out there and the German officers explained that Jersey was occupied. The German officers were young airborne troops-later he came to the house and read proclamations. They enquired about supplies and when he told them of the stocks of food they didn't think rationing would be necessary as they were on their way to England. After the Battle of Britain he met the officer again who said he felt sorry for them as a paper war was about to begin-a large administration was then brought in. Jersey was lucky because the heads of the administration were gentlemen-he could deal with them. He was always convinced that Britain would win-never thought they'd be here for ever. As a representative of his people-he had to deal with the Germans-he had no means of letting the people know what and why he was doing things-could gain great advantages but people wouldn't know about it. Felt no moral qualms about the things they did because the one thing they wanted to do was make sure the people of the island survived. Felt lonely-his wife often felt worse. There was nothing anyone could do in terms of sabotage-punishments would follow like wirelesses were taken away. When they were taken away he didn't have a secret set but was kept up to date with news. The worst time was in 1942 when the deportations took place-wanted to resign but was persuaded to stay. The conditions after D-Day were terrible-had no gas, electricity, coal or bread or a lot of other things. Had soup rations given out. If you lived in the country you were better off than the town people. He was able to have a fire because of the trees in his garden and had candles so he was fortunate. Everybody lost weight-his wife lost a great deal. The Germans near the end changed the people in the high command-the head was an admiral who he never got on with. He was determined never to surrender-he only surrendered when he was ordered to do so-had to climb down. Addressed the people in the Royal Square-played Winston Churchill's speech over loudspeakers in the Square and celebrations took place but they were not liberated until the next day on his birthday, 9th May 1945. During the war he protested-that was all he could do. After the liberation the problems were getting people back to the island. The constitutional set up of the island were examined-were asked how to reform the States and Royal Court and most of these were approved. The great task was to put in place the political reforms-15 years later they were not quite put in place. Housing was a great problem at that time-people coming back. Proud of the changes since the war. End of Side One. 3) Deportee Bob Samson being interviewed about a society that was formed after a visit to Germany in 1971 with the aim to foster better relationships between Jersey and the German people. Was an internee for 3 years. He was born in Birmingham-he was the only one in his family born outside of the island. He wasn't badly treated. About 2000 people were sent out of the island in six weeks. Was given notice of a day that he was to be deported-he received it a week before he was 18. He was not worried about being sent to Germany but his mother and father were worried. They couldn't stop him being sent away. He looked after himself on the boat-he knew people on the boat from St Ouen. Deportee Maurice Hill being interviewed about being arrested in September 1942 after protesting against the deportation of English born people to Germany. Was one of 13 arrested outside of the Barra Hotel. Was sentenced in a German court for 4 months-it was reduced to a month and he was released after 3 weeks but in February 1943 he was sent to Laufen. He was sent to the local prison in Jersey and Laufen was an old castle. The guards were regular soldiers but they did have an SS search once for a radio. The head of Laufen offered to take it and return it after the SS search which they did. They were supposed to get the German front line soldier but they didn't have much. A couple of people attempted to escape including an ex island footballer Cyril Dale who left with a Guernsey boy, Bill Russell-got as far as Vienna before getting caught. Bill Russell escaped when in Yugoslavia and joined the partisans. Laufen was an all male camp, families went to Biberach originally and then most of them went to Wurzach. They had a football pitch for entertainment on a small island-if they misbehaved it would be closed. There was a concert hall, table tennis table. All the equipment came through the Red Cross-received red cross parcels. They were released on May 4th-were listening to the news and saw American troops and ran out-they didn't know their was an internment camp in the village. Got back to Jersey in September but some got back before that and some after. 4) Personal view of Michael Ginns, a founder of the Channel Islands Occupation Society (Jersey Branch), interviewed by Beth Lloyd. The CIOS was originally founded in Guernsey in 1966 and the Jersey branch was formed in 1971 for the purpose of reporting and collating all aspects of the occupation. Believes some bunkers should be preserved for posterity-one day the bunkers will be looked upon in the same way as the martello towers. The bunkers and constructions were mostly built to fortress standards-will last a long time. The Germans left the bunkers in working order-straight after the occupation people went to the bunkers and took souvenirs-when the British troops arrived they took out the hardware which was dumped in the sea. Each type of the smaller weapons were given to the States of Jersey but everything else was dumped into the sea. As the years went by the bunkers were used as rubbish tips and so in the early 1960s all bunkers on public land were sealed to the public. Some are now open because in 1976 he thought it would be a good idea to open the Noirmont Bunker to the public-wrote to the Public Works Committee and they told him that in the winter they would go and look at it to see its prospects. The committee was later taken over by Senator John Averty-he was keen to open it and allowed the CIOS to look after it. Since then they have given the responsibility for the associated observation tower nearby, the bunker at Corbière, La Carrière, St Brelade and the Gun Emplacement and Underground Bunkers at Les Landes, St Ouen. Have 170 local member in the CIOS of which a dozen are very active. Noirmont is open twice a month for visitors. First Record-A german march. He was 11 years old when the second world war started. He had just started at Victoria College in 1939. Life continued as normal at first but had to carry his gas mask. He enjoyed it as a boy-liked seeing aeroplanes fly overhead. Knew the Germans were coming-after the evacuation there was a calm. His father though of evacuating but never managed to leave. The Germans moved into Victoria College House. Carried on at school-it began at 10 o'clock. In 1941 Victoria College moved to Halkett Place as it was taken over by the Germans as a barracks. In 1941 a German schools inspector visited Victoria College. The first he knew of deportation was when he was visiting town with his mother and she was told by a friend that the deportations were to take place. They were fortunate because it was a Tuesday but they didn't leave until Friday-some had to leave within 24 hours. Had to send animals to the Animal Shelter to be put down. Had to report at Grouville Station where a bus was laid on to take them to St Helier. Had to report to the JMT Garage on the Esplanade-they were on the last bus and couldn't get on the ship. Went home-some went home to empty houses which had been looted by neighbours. When they came back 21 days later people held back and weren't deported-there was a minor deportation in February 1943. Second Record-Vera Lynn with 'The White Cliffs of Dover'. The journey from France to Germany has to be looked at in terms of the time. They were the only prisoners at the time being transported in second class railway carriages as opposed to good carriages. They got in to the train at St Malo-were warned to bring enough food for two days and were given some food by the German soldiers. Arrived at Biberach-they then walked up to the camp-it was a prisoner of war camp. Quickly organised themselves in the camp-Captain Hilton was appointed camp senior. Education was laid on for everyone in the first 6 weeks but during this time they were being sorted out. Single men over 16 went to Laufen, married couples with children went to Wurzach and single couples stayed in Biberach and were joined the Guernsey deportees who were following. The rations from the Germans left you hungry but not starving but without the red cross parcels they would have been in trouble. He preferred Wurzach where he moved to-everything was under one roof. Life for a teenage boy-there were football matches, stage shows. It was difficult for a parent with a young family and older people. His mother was matron of the camp hospital-she was asked by Dr Oliver who went with them. Mrs Hutton was the first matron of the hospital but she died in 1943 and his mother took over. His father was ill and spent time in hospital-he was repatriated in September 1943 because of ill health. He was the only child-was in a room with 20 other men and boys there own age-used to collect bread and milk from the village. Had visits from the Red Cross and they decided they needed more room to exercise. There were organised walks outside of the camp twice a week-the guard would sometimes stop at the pub and they had some money from the government. They were repatriated in March 1945 to join up with his father-Germany was falling apart at this time but they were taken on a Red Cross train through Germany, Denmark into Gothenburg, Sweden. Crossed from Gothenburg to Liverpool. They returned to Jersey on July 28th 1945. Everything was intact in their home. Third Record-The Watermill. Felt pleased to be home but was annoyed that he missed the liberation of the camp and Jersey. He and his friends went to Mr Robinson's private school in Balmoral Terrace and he took the school certificate. He joined the army and went to Bodmin-got as far as Nottingham but didn't go abroad-was a vehicle mechanic who worked on tanks-stayed for 6 years. Fourth Record-The theme from the television series We'll Meet Again. When he left the army he started to work in the post office in Nottinghamshire-worked there from Christmas 1952 until May 1953 when he came back to Jersey and became a postman and has been so ever since. Can have problems with dogs but generally are not too bad. Knows about jersey buses-is fascinated by the transport systems of Jersey-wrote a book about the buses in Jersey. Is involved with the Jersey Camera Club and with David Bishop and his wife they produce tape slide sequences. They visited the Royal Air Force base in Cranwell after the RAF visited Jersey and saw his slide show sequences about the occupation and invited them to show them at the base-enjoyed the trip. Fifth Record-Royal Air Force March Past played the Central Band of the Royal Air Force. Enjoys writing books about the occupation. Archives are still being discovered. Most of his work is taken up by running the CIOS. His wife shares his interest in the occupation. Wants to write a definitive work on the defences of the Channel Islands.

Reference: R/07/B/14

BBC Radio Jersey-Occupation Tapes. Told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. See R/06/4.

Reference: R/07/F1/13

Date: July 8th 1990 - July 8th 1990

The accounts of Gordon Walker and Leonard Cottrell regarding Belsen concentration camp

Reference: US/137

Date: 1944 - 1945

Jersey Evening Post Article : The film, 'Another Mother's Son' telling the story of how Louisa Gould sheltered a slave worker in WWII, premieres at the Jersey War Tunnels.

Reference: US/1379

Date: March 24th 2017

Jersey Evening Post Article : Harold Le Druillenec's personal account of life in German concentration camps which was used to support his application for compensation from the UK has been released by the National Archive for the first time.

Reference: US/1394

Date: April 4th 2016

Jersey Evening Post Newspaper article : 'Shedding new light on the lives of Occupation policical prisoners' - Occupation historian and Cambridge University lecturer, Dr Gilly Carr, outlines her new book studing Jersey and Guernsey prisons during the German Occupation.

Reference: US/1497

Date: September 24th 2020

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