Ms letter (18pp) written to a relative by W Le Cocq, 12 May 1945, describing his life in Jersey during the German Occupation of the Channel Islands, referring to restrictions on personal freedom, the subjection of vehicles and other forms of transportation to compulsory purchase orders, harsh punishments for the contravention of German regulations, his sympathy with the German soldiers for whom "women and girls went mad", the shortage of food and poor supply of other commodities and services including gas, water and electricity, and the widespread theft which resulted from these shortages.

Reference: P338

Date: 1945 - 1945

Sound Recordings

Reference: R/02/A

Talk by Gordon Prigent, a prisoner in the SS camp in Alderney during the occupation, to the Channel Islands Occupation Society. Introduction and announcements by Michael Ginns. Talks about being put in the camp for being an undesirable for refusing to work for ther Germans, being sent to an OT farm in Alderney, being transferred to the soldatenheim to scrub floors, being caught listening to the news and as punishment being sent back to the OT farm, refused to work at the farm and was marched to the SS Camp Nordeney, put to work on the land, different manual works listed, length of the days growing as the days became longer, digging slip trenches around the bay after D-Day, preparing the food at the soldatenheim, digging potatoes, collecting food from Fort Albert dungeons and delivering it, stealing some of the food to survive, the food situation, working in the bakehouse, illness amongst prisoners, the OT camp commander, beatings on prisoners by the german soldiers, Russians being so hungry that they killed a dog for food and were shot as punishment, his condition since the end of the war, bombing of the soldatenheim, evacuation from the island to France but having to turn back because og the amount of ships lost, being transported to Guernsey and staying at the hospital and then onto Jersey, marched to Fort Regent, some prisoners being transported to France but boats lost so he remained in Jersey, reporting at Victoria College and being given a job which he didn't do. Questions asked on how old he was during the second world war, the circumstances of his arrest, how long he spent in Alderney, the uniform prisoners wore, messages to his family, the nationality of other prisoners, farming he undertook, criticism of a book about the Alderney concentration camps, deaths in the camps, marches undertaken by the prisoners, hospital at the camp and the treatment of the sick and starving, what he saw of the invasion in France, the building of the camps and fortifications, treatment of the prisoners, whether he worked on the harbour, an irish worker he knew, relationships with other prisoners, how he feels now, nationality of the guards, rabbits on the island and a fellow Jersey prisoner-see L/D/25/L/52.

Reference: R/02/A/1

Date: October 13th 1982 - October 13th 1982

Jersey Talking Magazine-October Edition. Introduction by Gordon Young. Gordon Young describing the Falcon parachute team's display at the Battle of Britain. Nature feature-Frances Le Sueur talking about jackdaws with examples of birdsong. Norah Bryan talking to Anthony Grey, a journalist, about being captured and held prisoner in China, writing novels, his current novel, whether he draws on his experiences when writing novels, moving to Jersey for three years after being released, returning to Jersey on holiday, what he loves about the island, bringing his children to the island and changes he has noticed. Linda Le Vasseur talking to Peter Brayou, secretary of the Guernsey Driving Society about how he first got interested in driving horses, how the society was formed, the variety of horse drawn carriages, the horse drawn bus, members making their own carriages, the difficulties in building a van, the costumes that are worn and the possibility of more people driving horse drawn carriages. In Touch tips for the blind on how to tell the time with a watch, a knitting needle gauge, setting up an alarm to hear when there was a letter delivered. End of Side One. Beth Lloyd visiting Alderney with the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club to put on an entertainment for Alderney Week-including exerts from the show, watching an event where people jump off a platform trying to fly with commentary by Roger Burton, President of the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club. Beth Lloyd talking to Eileen Sykes about the constitution of Alderney, finance in the island, the evacuation of the island during the occupation, the concentration camps, work permits on the island, building restrictions. Gordon Young telling a joke.

Reference: R/05/B/35

Date: September 30th 1979 - September 30th 1979

Occupation-BBC Radio Jersey tape. The story of the occupation of Jersey during World War 2 told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. 1) Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. 2) Part 14: Entertainment. Eye witnesses talking about the difficulties of the first show during the occupation put on by the Jersey Amateur Dramatics Club, cinemas and the films that were shown, variety entertainment at the Opera House, West's Cinema and out in the parishes, finding musicians, public dances, the Amateur Variety Band, the Green Room Club productions including pantomimes, easter productions and shows, improvisations with costumes and scenery and censorship of the shows. 3) Part 15: We Are At War. Eye witness accounts of feelings of isolation, seeing and hearing British and German aeroplanes, feeling and seeing bombing raids on the coast of France, leaflet raids, members of the royal air force being taken as prisoners of war, commando raid on Egypt, sabotage, the v sign campaign, resistance and reprisals, youth groups against the Germans, the British Patriots group and Norman Le Brocq and Leslie Huelin working with the Free Germany Movement represented by Paul Muelbach calling for a mutiny in the garrison. 4) Occupation Part 16: Escapes produced by Beth Lloyd made up of interviews of local people who were in Jersey during the Occupation. Subjects discussed include the escape of Denis Vibert to England in September 1941, tales of different escapes to France by islanders recounted by Eddie Le Corre, Basil Le Brun, Peter Crill, John Floyd, Roy Mourant and their subsequent experiences of interrogations by the Home Forces and arrival in England. 5) Part 17: D-Day and the Last Terrible Year. Eye witnesses talking about the realisation that D-Day was taking place, aeroplanes going over the island, lack of fuel and food supplies, health in island worsening, Red Cross parcels, the arrival and unloading of the SS Vega, starvation of German soldiers and waiting for liberation. 6) Part 18: Liberation. Eye witnesses including the bailiff talking about the change in the high command of the german administration and listening to Winston Churchill's speech, release of political prisoners, celebrations, surrender of Germans and arrival of royal navy officers.

Reference: R/06/4

1) Programme about the Liberation of the Channel Islands traced through the archives of the BBC. Winston Churchill's speech on Victory in Europe and the liberation of the island. Douglas Willis, a BBC correspondent, who sailed with the liberating forces into the harbour in HMS Beagle and HMS Bulldog-comments on the arrival into the harbour in Guernsey-arrived in the afternoon but a German officer, Captain Zimmerman arrived who didn't have the power to sign the surrender. Zimmerman was told to withdraw with a copy of the surrender in german and english-he told the British forces that if they kept the ship there that it would be considered a hostile action. HMS Beagle and Bulldog withdrew until they were called to a rendez-vous at midnight so that Major General Heine could sign the surrender. For the first time in 6 years HMS Bulldog is lit up. Heine came out in a ship but did not leave in order to board the HMS Bulldog-the commander of the HMS Bulldog started to get impatient-they turned on the searchlight-the boat arrived after 10 minutes. Commentates on Major General Heine getting on the ship and going to sign the surrender-recording of the surrender. At 6.30 on May 9th Douglas Willis sent another report from HMS Bulldog commentating on the surrender of the german commander in chief and his garrison-waiting for more than 5½ hours-moved towards Guernsey. Recording of British soldier demanding the signing of the surrender. Report at 7.15 on May 9th by Douglas Willis on the surrender of the German forces. Brigadier Snow transferred to HMS Beagle to go to Jersey to receive the surrender of the German garrison-anchored off St Helier Harbour at 10am-Wolf was ordered to the ship but failed to appear immediately. Alexander Coutanche, the bailiff, explains that he was called to meet the German commander in order to accompany him to the boat. When he arrived he found Wulf had his staff officers with him and when he saw that he demanded that his officers came as well-they waited for him. The bailiff sent messages to both the King and Winston Churchill-on May 12th the King issued a royal proclamation about the freeing of the Channel Islands [which is read out]. On the 1 o'clock news on the 16th May it was reported that Herbert Morrison had a great reception on a visit to St Helier-the next day the shops were due to be filled with goods. In Guernsey Herbert Morrison talks about his visit to the Channel Islands. On the 5th June the bailiff spoke on radio-talks about the Jersey residents in the armed forces, his thanks towards the government in the UK, the force under Brigadier Snow and the Channel Islanders who were deported during the second world war and his wish to hurry their return to the island although warns that the islands may have changed from when they left them and he talks about the changes and difficulties that the island experienced during the occupation-the shortages, rationing, worsening conditions and the Red Cross. On the 7th June the royal visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth took place. BBC Correspondent Howard Marshall reporting about the King and Queen arriving at the States building and meeting the bailiff, the crowds in the Royal Square to see the royal visit, playing of the national anthem, going in and coming out of the States Building with a fanfare and the car being driven away. On christmas day 1945 Harold Le Druillenec, the only British survivor of Belsen, was chosen to introduce the King's message to the Commonwealth-talks about his experience in the concentration camp, the death of his sister and his survival, his life during the occupation in the Channel Islands and the freedom they now experience. 2) Tom Salmon interviewing Sir Alexander Coutanche. Talks about the office of bailiff and its 3 main functions-presiding in the court, presiding in the States and administrative work. Started as a member of the Bar during the first world war, came back to practice in Jersey in 1920 and soon after that he was elected as a deputy in St Helier. After 3 years he was appointed as the solicitor-general and then attorney-general and then bailiff. He is been a member of the States for 38 years in different capacities. Became the bailiff in 1935. When he became solicitor-general in 1925 he knew there needed to be a reorganisation of the public services-by 1935 the reorganisation had taken place. Saw the possibility of Jersey as a tourist destination-was interested in the building of the Airport and updating of the harbours. The increase in tourism meant a reorganisation in society in order to deal with visitors and hotel workers. Was responsible for the establishment of the first housing scheme. The arrival of the second world war-no one believed that there was going to be an occupation. The island was prepared to receive soldiers from St Malo as a defensive position-the Germans didn't go directly to St Malo and so the soldiers could get back to Britain safely. As a result the British troops were removed and the islands were left undefended-the Jersey people felt horror at this news. When the evacuation was completed he was ordered to take on the responsibilities of both bailiff and governor-a war time government was established to speed up the process. When the British troops left they offered to blow up the public utilities but he pointed out they'd be needed for the residents and so they decided to leave them as they were. On the day the German soldiers landed he was in his house in the morning and he received notice that papers had been dropped ordering the surrender of the island. He had told residents that when he could not guarantee their safety he would lower the flag from Fort Regent and that day he went to Fort Regent and lowered the flag. When at Fort Regent received a message saying the Germans had landed at the Jersey Airport-he went out there and the German officers explained that Jersey was occupied. The German officers were young airborne troops-later he came to the house and read proclamations. They enquired about supplies and when he told them of the stocks of food they didn't think rationing would be necessary as they were on their way to England. After the Battle of Britain he met the officer again who said he felt sorry for them as a paper war was about to begin-a large administration was then brought in. Jersey was lucky because the heads of the administration were gentlemen-he could deal with them. He was always convinced that Britain would win-never thought they'd be here for ever. As a representative of his people-he had to deal with the Germans-he had no means of letting the people know what and why he was doing things-could gain great advantages but people wouldn't know about it. Felt no moral qualms about the things they did because the one thing they wanted to do was make sure the people of the island survived. Felt lonely-his wife often felt worse. There was nothing anyone could do in terms of sabotage-punishments would follow like wirelesses were taken away. When they were taken away he didn't have a secret set but was kept up to date with news. The worst time was in 1942 when the deportations took place-wanted to resign but was persuaded to stay. The conditions after D-Day were terrible-had no gas, electricity, coal or bread or a lot of other things. Had soup rations given out. If you lived in the country you were better off than the town people. He was able to have a fire because of the trees in his garden and had candles so he was fortunate. Everybody lost weight-his wife lost a great deal. The Germans near the end changed the people in the high command-the head was an admiral who he never got on with. He was determined never to surrender-he only surrendered when he was ordered to do so-had to climb down. Addressed the people in the Royal Square-played Winston Churchill's speech over loudspeakers in the Square and celebrations took place but they were not liberated until the next day on his birthday, 9th May 1945. During the war he protested-that was all he could do. After the liberation the problems were getting people back to the island. The constitutional set up of the island were examined-were asked how to reform the States and Royal Court and most of these were approved. The great task was to put in place the political reforms-15 years later they were not quite put in place. Housing was a great problem at that time-people coming back. Proud of the changes since the war. End of Side One. 3) Deportee Bob Samson being interviewed about a society that was formed after a visit to Germany in 1971 with the aim to foster better relationships between Jersey and the German people. Was an internee for 3 years. He was born in Birmingham-he was the only one in his family born outside of the island. He wasn't badly treated. About 2000 people were sent out of the island in six weeks. Was given notice of a day that he was to be deported-he received it a week before he was 18. He was not worried about being sent to Germany but his mother and father were worried. They couldn't stop him being sent away. He looked after himself on the boat-he knew people on the boat from St Ouen. Deportee Maurice Hill being interviewed about being arrested in September 1942 after protesting against the deportation of English born people to Germany. Was one of 13 arrested outside of the Barra Hotel. Was sentenced in a German court for 4 months-it was reduced to a month and he was released after 3 weeks but in February 1943 he was sent to Laufen. He was sent to the local prison in Jersey and Laufen was an old castle. The guards were regular soldiers but they did have an SS search once for a radio. The head of Laufen offered to take it and return it after the SS search which they did. They were supposed to get the German front line soldier but they didn't have much. A couple of people attempted to escape including an ex island footballer Cyril Dale who left with a Guernsey boy, Bill Russell-got as far as Vienna before getting caught. Bill Russell escaped when in Yugoslavia and joined the partisans. Laufen was an all male camp, families went to Biberach originally and then most of them went to Wurzach. They had a football pitch for entertainment on a small island-if they misbehaved it would be closed. There was a concert hall, table tennis table. All the equipment came through the Red Cross-received red cross parcels. They were released on May 4th-were listening to the news and saw American troops and ran out-they didn't know their was an internment camp in the village. Got back to Jersey in September but some got back before that and some after. 4) Personal view of Michael Ginns, a founder of the Channel Islands Occupation Society (Jersey Branch), interviewed by Beth Lloyd. The CIOS was originally founded in Guernsey in 1966 and the Jersey branch was formed in 1971 for the purpose of reporting and collating all aspects of the occupation. Believes some bunkers should be preserved for posterity-one day the bunkers will be looked upon in the same way as the martello towers. The bunkers and constructions were mostly built to fortress standards-will last a long time. The Germans left the bunkers in working order-straight after the occupation people went to the bunkers and took souvenirs-when the British troops arrived they took out the hardware which was dumped in the sea. Each type of the smaller weapons were given to the States of Jersey but everything else was dumped into the sea. As the years went by the bunkers were used as rubbish tips and so in the early 1960s all bunkers on public land were sealed to the public. Some are now open because in 1976 he thought it would be a good idea to open the Noirmont Bunker to the public-wrote to the Public Works Committee and they told him that in the winter they would go and look at it to see its prospects. The committee was later taken over by Senator John Averty-he was keen to open it and allowed the CIOS to look after it. Since then they have given the responsibility for the associated observation tower nearby, the bunker at Corbière, La Carrière, St Brelade and the Gun Emplacement and Underground Bunkers at Les Landes, St Ouen. Have 170 local member in the CIOS of which a dozen are very active. Noirmont is open twice a month for visitors. First Record-A german march. He was 11 years old when the second world war started. He had just started at Victoria College in 1939. Life continued as normal at first but had to carry his gas mask. He enjoyed it as a boy-liked seeing aeroplanes fly overhead. Knew the Germans were coming-after the evacuation there was a calm. His father though of evacuating but never managed to leave. The Germans moved into Victoria College House. Carried on at school-it began at 10 o'clock. In 1941 Victoria College moved to Halkett Place as it was taken over by the Germans as a barracks. In 1941 a German schools inspector visited Victoria College. The first he knew of deportation was when he was visiting town with his mother and she was told by a friend that the deportations were to take place. They were fortunate because it was a Tuesday but they didn't leave until Friday-some had to leave within 24 hours. Had to send animals to the Animal Shelter to be put down. Had to report at Grouville Station where a bus was laid on to take them to St Helier. Had to report to the JMT Garage on the Esplanade-they were on the last bus and couldn't get on the ship. Went home-some went home to empty houses which had been looted by neighbours. When they came back 21 days later people held back and weren't deported-there was a minor deportation in February 1943. Second Record-Vera Lynn with 'The White Cliffs of Dover'. The journey from France to Germany has to be looked at in terms of the time. They were the only prisoners at the time being transported in second class railway carriages as opposed to good carriages. They got in to the train at St Malo-were warned to bring enough food for two days and were given some food by the German soldiers. Arrived at Biberach-they then walked up to the camp-it was a prisoner of war camp. Quickly organised themselves in the camp-Captain Hilton was appointed camp senior. Education was laid on for everyone in the first 6 weeks but during this time they were being sorted out. Single men over 16 went to Laufen, married couples with children went to Wurzach and single couples stayed in Biberach and were joined the Guernsey deportees who were following. The rations from the Germans left you hungry but not starving but without the red cross parcels they would have been in trouble. He preferred Wurzach where he moved to-everything was under one roof. Life for a teenage boy-there were football matches, stage shows. It was difficult for a parent with a young family and older people. His mother was matron of the camp hospital-she was asked by Dr Oliver who went with them. Mrs Hutton was the first matron of the hospital but she died in 1943 and his mother took over. His father was ill and spent time in hospital-he was repatriated in September 1943 because of ill health. He was the only child-was in a room with 20 other men and boys there own age-used to collect bread and milk from the village. Had visits from the Red Cross and they decided they needed more room to exercise. There were organised walks outside of the camp twice a week-the guard would sometimes stop at the pub and they had some money from the government. They were repatriated in March 1945 to join up with his father-Germany was falling apart at this time but they were taken on a Red Cross train through Germany, Denmark into Gothenburg, Sweden. Crossed from Gothenburg to Liverpool. They returned to Jersey on July 28th 1945. Everything was intact in their home. Third Record-The Watermill. Felt pleased to be home but was annoyed that he missed the liberation of the camp and Jersey. He and his friends went to Mr Robinson's private school in Balmoral Terrace and he took the school certificate. He joined the army and went to Bodmin-got as far as Nottingham but didn't go abroad-was a vehicle mechanic who worked on tanks-stayed for 6 years. Fourth Record-The theme from the television series We'll Meet Again. When he left the army he started to work in the post office in Nottinghamshire-worked there from Christmas 1952 until May 1953 when he came back to Jersey and became a postman and has been so ever since. Can have problems with dogs but generally are not too bad. Knows about jersey buses-is fascinated by the transport systems of Jersey-wrote a book about the buses in Jersey. Is involved with the Jersey Camera Club and with David Bishop and his wife they produce tape slide sequences. They visited the Royal Air Force base in Cranwell after the RAF visited Jersey and saw his slide show sequences about the occupation and invited them to show them at the base-enjoyed the trip. Fifth Record-Royal Air Force March Past played the Central Band of the Royal Air Force. Enjoys writing books about the occupation. Archives are still being discovered. Most of his work is taken up by running the CIOS. His wife shares his interest in the occupation. Wants to write a definitive work on the defences of the Channel Islands.

Reference: R/07/B/14

BBC Radio Jersey-Occupation Tapes. Told by the people who lived through it produced by Beth Lloyd. Part 13: The Todt Organisation and their Russian Slave Labourers. Eye witnesses talking about the background of the Organisation Todt, the arrival of the Russians on the island, the condition they were in, the brutality of their overseers, begging and stealing food, concentration camps, the Jersey Communist Party and other people giving shelter, food, clothes, false papers and english lessons with Mrs Metcalfe to escaped prisoners, the story of Louisa Gould, Harold Le Druillenec and Feodor Burrij and the experience of other residents who harboured escapees. See R/06/4.

Reference: R/07/F1/13

Date: July 8th 1990 - July 8th 1990

The accounts of Gordon Walker and Leonard Cottrell regarding Belsen concentration camp

Reference: US/137

Date: 1944 - 1945

Jersey Evening Post Article : Harold Le Druillenec's personal account of life in German concentration camps which was used to support his application for compensation from the UK has been released by the National Archive for the first time.

Reference: US/1394

Date: April 4th 2016

Jersey Evening Post Newspaper article : Family fights to repatricate relative who survived Belsen - Frank Le Villio

Reference: US/1538

Date: May 20th 2017

Jersey Evening Post Newspaper article : Holocaust Memorial Day - Sandra Wakeham speaks about her uncle, George Fox, a victim of the Nazi regime

Reference: US/1596

Date: January 27th 2021

Jersey Evening Post Newspaper article : Academics refute claims of undisclosed war documents

Reference: US/1676

Date: July 31st 2021

JEP Newscutting - Article about Belsen concentration camp, mentioning Jerseyman Harold Le Druillenec who was a survivor - 01/04/08

Reference: US/474

Date: 2008 - 2008

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